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Lesson of Japanese No.14

Japanese-vocabulary




にぎやか
子ども/子
いっぱい
息子

あたし
遊ぶ
脱ぐ
待つ
死ぬ
じゃない
Hen
Nigiyaka
Kodomo/ko
Ippai
Musuko
Musume
Atashi
Asobu
Nugu
Matsu
Shinu
Janai
Neighborhood/surroundings
Lively
Kid
Full/a lot
Son
Daughter
I/me (for a woman)
To play/to have fun
To take off (clothes)/to undress
To wait
To die
Not to be


Japanese-writing



Japanese-text



- この辺はにがやかだね。

- そうだね。子どもがいっぱいいるからね。あたしの息子もよくここに来るよ。よくマリさんの娘さんと一緒に遊ぶよ。

- マリさんの娘さんって、あの子じゃない?

- そうそう、あの子。
- Kono hen wa nigiyaka da ne.

- Sou da ne. Kodomo ga ippai iru kara ne. Atashi no musuko mo yoku koko ni kuru yo. Yoku Mari san no musume san to issho ni asobu yo.

- Mari san no musume san tte, ano ko janai?

- Sou sou, ano ko.




- ''This neighborhood is lively, isn't it?''

- ''It's true. That's because there are a lot of kids. My son also often comes here. He plays with Mary's daughter.''

- ''Mary's daughter, isn't it the girl over there?''

- ''Yes, indeed, it's the kid over there.''


Japanese-grammar

''My daughter'' and ''your daughter''

The Japanese don't call the same way the members of their own family and the members of other families.




私の娘。 => Watashi no musume. => My daughter.

本田さんの娘さん。 => Honda san no musume san. => Mr Honda's daughter.

私の息子。 => Watashi no musuko. => My son.

山田さんの息子さん。 => Yamada san no musuko san. => Mr Yamada's son.


''ここ'' (koko) here, ''そこ'' (soko) there, ''あそこ'' (asoko) over there

''ここ'' refers to the place or surroundings of the person who is speaking. ''そこ'' refers to the surroundings of the person who is listening or to a place slightly away from the people who are speaking. ''あそこ'' refers to the furthest places. The principle is the same as the one of the demonstrative pronouns ''これ'', ''それ''and ''あれ'' and ''この'', ''その''and ''あの'', which we saw in the course No.7.




- ここはどこ?
- Koko wa doko?
- Where are we? (Here, it's where?)

- 私の家はあそこにあります。
- Watashi no ie wa asoko ni arimasu.
- My house is over there.


''って'' (tte)

We use ''って'' in an informal context when reusing a sentence or a word that was used previously by the listener. We want to make a comment about it or ask for more detailed explanations.




- あそこって、日本?
- Asoko tte, Nihon?
- When you say "over there", you are talking about Japan?


The ''informal'' form and the ''-masu'' form

In the first courses, we had always been using the ''-masu'' verb's form; then, in the previous course, we studied the ''informal'' form of the verb. We saw that the second form mentionned is used in an informal context and can also be used to form other verb's forms such as the ''-koto'' form.

The fact that the same verb is used in a different way, depending on the context, is troublesome at the beginning, but the good thing is that there is a way that allows us to go to the ''-masu'' form of the verb if we know the ''informal'' form. Let's remember that the ''informal'' form is the one used in the dictionaries. Knowing that, it is not necessary to learn each verb twice; learning the ''informal'' form is enough. Let's see how to find the ''-masu'' form of a verb, using its ''informal'' form.


There are 9 verb's endings:

Verb's endings
Examples








u
ku
gu
su
tsu
nu
bu
mu
ru
買う
聞く
脱ぐ
話す
待つ
死ぬ
遊ぶ
読む
見る
Kau
Kiku
Nugu
Hanasu
Matsu
Shinu
Asobu
Yomu
Miru
To buy
To listen/to ask
To take off (clothes)/to undress
To talk/to discuss
To wait
To die
To play/to have fun
To read
To see


We classify the verbs into 3 groups, which we are simply calling the "1st group", "2nd group" and "3rd group". In each group, there is a different way to get the ''-masu'' form.


Verbs of the 3rd group

Let's begin with the verbs of the 3rd group. There are only two of them and they are exceptions. They are the only ones that you need to learn by heart. You already know them. They are the verbs ''する''(suru) and ''来る'' (kuru).

- する (suru) => します (shimasu)

- 来る (kuru) => 来ます (kimasu)

When it is at the ''informal'' form,''来'' is being pronounced [ku]. When it is at the ''-masu'' form, it is being pronounced [ki].


Verbs of the 2nd group

The verbs of the 2nd group are the ones ending with ''-iru'' or ''-eru''. However, some verbs ending with ''-iru'' or ''-eru'' are in the 1st group. Sadly, nothing allows us to tell in which verb's group is a verb ending with ''-iru'' or ''-eru''.
To get the ''-masu'' form of a verb of the 2nd group is very simple. You only have to replace the ''る'' ending with ''ます''.

- 食べ (taberu) => 食べます (tabemasu)

- 見 (miru) => 見ます (mimasu)

- い (iru) => います (imasu)


Verbs of the 1st group

The 1st group is the most important because most of the verbs are in that group, except for a few verbs ending with ''る'' in the 2nd and 3rd groups. The verbs of that group have 9 different endings. For each ending, there is a way to get the ''-masu'' form.

- 買 (kau) => 買ます (kaimasu)

- 聞 (kiku) => 聞ます (kikimasu)

- 脱 (nugu) => 脱ます (nugimasu)

- 遊 (asobu) => 遊ます (asobimasu)

- 読 (yomu) => 読ます (yomimasu)

- 話 (hanasu) => 話ます (hanashimasu)

- 待 (matsu) => 待ます (machimasu)

- 死 (shinu) => 死ます (shinimasu)

- 帰 (kaeru) => 帰ます (kaerimasu)

- あ (aru) => あます (arimasu)


Exception

Note that ''です'', that we often translate into "to be" or "it's", is not considered as a verb in Japanese. It is rather a particle, more precisely a word that links the subject to the adjective.It is not part of any of the three groups of verbs. Its ''informal'' form is ''だ'' (da). We used it twice in this course's text.Note that in some cases, we omit to use ''です'' to go from the ''polite'' form to the ''informal'' form. For instance, it is the case when ''です'' follows the ''-tai'' form of a verb or an ''i'' adjective at the end of a sentence.



- 牛肉を食べます
- 牛肉を食べ
- I eat beef.

- 本を読みます
- 本を読
- I read a book.

- 私のですよ。
- 僕の
- It's mine.

- そうですね。
- そうね。
- Indeed. (It's actually that. or It's as you say.)

- 高いです
- 高い。
- It's expensive.

- カナダへ行きたいです
- カナダへ行きたい。
- I want to go to Canada.

Japanese-reading

HiraganaKatakana





gi
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pa
nu
mu
gu

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