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Lesson of Japanese No.16


vocabulaire-japonais



土曜日
日曜日
仕事
忙しい

出かける
公園
辞める
大変

ギター
サッカー
Doyoubi
Nichiyoubi
Shigoto
Isogashii
Minna/Mina
Dekakeru
Kouen
Yameru
Taihen
Hoka
Gitâ
Sakkâ
Saturday
Sunday
Work/job
Busy
Everybody
To go out
Park
To resign/to stop
Serious/grave/hard(difficult)
Other
Guitar
Soccer


ecriture-japonais



texte-japonais



- 土曜日皆と公園へ行く?

- 行かないと思う。仕事が忙しいから、土曜日も日曜日も出かけない。

- 大変だね。他の仕事をしたくない?

- 忙しいけど、この仕事が大好きだから辞めたくない。
- Doyoubi minna to kouen e iku?

- Ikanai to omou. Shigoto ga isogashii kara, doyoubi mo nichiyoubi mo dekakenai.

- Taihen da ne. Hoka no shigoto wo shitakunai?

- Isogashii kedo, kono shigoto ga daisuki da kara yametakunai.



- ''You will go to the park with everybody on Saturday?''
- ''No, I don't think that I will go. Because I am busy with my job, I won't go out on Saturday and either on Sunday.''
- ''This is hard on you. You don't want to do an other job?''
- ''I am busy, but I love this work. That's why I don't want to stop.''


grammaire-japonais

The days of the week



DaysKanjiPronunciationTranslationStar,satellite or planet
Sunday日曜日NichiyoubiThe day of the sunSun 日
Monday月曜日GetsuyoubiThe day of the moonMoon 月
Tuesday火曜日KayoubiThe day of the fireMars 火星
Wednesday水曜日SuiyoubiThe day of the waterMercury 水星
Thursday木曜日MokuyoubiThe day of the woodJupiter 木星
Friday金曜日kinyoubiThe day of the metalVenus 金星
Saturday土曜日DoyoubiThe day of the earthSaturn 土星


Note : The week begins with Sunday on the Japanese calendars.

ecriture-japonais



grammaire-japonais

''...も...も...'' (... mo ... mo...)

We use the particle ''も'' to create a list where every item is important. That particle (も) puts some emphasis on each word that precedes it.




- 土曜日日曜日出かけない。
- Doyoubi mo nichiyoubi mo dekakenai.
- Even on Saturdays and Sundays, I don't go out.

Note : The sentence in the example above is at the present tense. However, this same sentence is at the future tense in the text of this course. It is the context that allows us to know when the action is taking place.



The ''-nai'' form

We use the ''-nai'' form to get the negation. It is the same as the ''-masen'' form, but it is used in an informal context.

The formal(polite) form



食べます / 食べません (to eat/not to eat)

The informal form

食べる / 食べない (to eat/not to eat)

The way to get the ''-nai'' form is different depending on the groups of verbs.


The verbs of the 3rd group

Let's remember that the 3rd group only has two verbs : する (suru) et 来る (kuru).

- する (suru) => します (shimasu) => しません (shimasen) => しない (shinai)

- 来る (kuru) => 来ます (kimasu) => 来ません (kimasen) => 来ない (konai)




- 日本語を勉強しない
- Nihongo wo benkyou shinai.
- I don't study Japanese.


The verbs of the 2nd group

It's very simple: We simply replace "ru" with "nai".

- 食べ (taberu) => 食べない (tabenai)

- 見 (miru) => 見ない (minai)

- い (iru) => いない (inai)




- 今日は田中さんがいないと思います。
- Kyou wa Tanaka san ga inai to omoimasu.
- I think that Mr Tanaka isn't here today.


The verbs of the 1st group

Each of the 9 endings of the 1st group of verbs is different.

- 買 (kau) => 買ない (kawanai)

- 聞 (kiku) => 聞ない (kikanai)

- 脱 (nugu) => 脱ない (nuganai)

- 遊 (asobu) => 遊ない (asobanai)

- 読 (yomu) => 読ない (yomanai)

- 話 (hanasu) => 話ない (hanasanai)

- 待 (matsu) => 待ない (matanai)

- 死 (shinu) => 死ない (shinanai)

- 帰 (kaeru) => 帰ない (kaeranai)




- 明子さんは金曜日も土曜日も遊ばない
- Akiko san wa kinyoubi mo doyoubi mo asobanai.
- Even on Fridays and Saturdays, Akiko doesn't relax.


Exception

The ''-nai'' form of ''ある'' (aru) is ''ない'' (nai).
So, the negative form of ''です'' (desu), ''ではありません'' (dewa arimasen), becomes ''ではない'' (dewa nai) at the informal form. In the previous course, we also saw ''じゃない'' (janai). It is the short and informal form of ''ではない'' (dewa nai).




- ドイツに海はない.
- Doitsu ni umi wanai.
- There is no sea in Germany.

- 僕のではない
- Boku no dewa nai.
- It's not mine.

- 僕はサッカーが好きじゃない
- Boku wa sakkâ ga suki janai.
- I(man) don't like soccer.

- あの人は有名じゃないと思います。
- Ano hito wa yuumei janai to omoimasu.
- I think that person isn't famous.


The past form

''-nai'' => ''-nakatta''




- 日本語を勉強しなかった
- Nihongo wo benkyou shinakatta.
- I didn't study Japanese.

- 昨日は田中さんがいなかったと思います。
- Kinou wa Tanaka san ga inakatta to omoimasu.
- I think that Mr Tanaka wasn't there yesterday.

lecture-japonais

HiraganaKatakana
megi


• The "ッ" (small ''ツ'') doubles the consonant that follows it.