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Lesson of Japanese No.20


vocabulaire-japonais



もしもし
大使館
探す
場所
まだ
かかる
通り
わかる
知る


曲がる


じゃ
Moshi moshi
Taishikan
Sagasu
Basho
Mada
Kakaru
Doori
Wakaru
Shiru
Migi
Hidari
Magaru
Gawa
Koto
Ja
Hello
Embassy
To search/to look for
Place/location
Yet/still/not yet
To take (time/money)
Street
To be understood(or known)/to understand/to know
To know
Right(side)
Left
To turn
Side
Thing
Well then.../so...


ecriture-japonais



texte-japonais



- もしもし。

- 山田先生ですか。セバスティエンです。聞きたい事がありますが今いいですか。

- いいですよ。学校にいますが大丈夫。

- 今フランス大使館を探しています。山田先生は場所を知っていますね。

- はい、知っていますよ。今どこにいますか。

- まだ広尾駅の前にいます。

- 駅から10分ぐらいかかります。明治通りがわかりますか。

- わかります。

- じゃ、明治通りまで行って。そこを左に曲がって。大使館は右側にあります。

- わかりました。ありがとうございました。
- Moshi moshi.

- Yamada sensei desu ka. Sebasutien desu. Kikitai koto ga arimasu ga ima ii desu ka.

- Ii desu yo. Ima gakkou ni imasu ga daijoubu.

- Ima furansu taishikan wo sagashite imasu. Yamada sensei wa basho wo shitte imasu ne.

- Hai, Shitte imasu yo. Ima doko ni imasu ka.

- Mada Hiroo eki no mae ni imasu.

- Eki kara 10 pun gurai kakarimasu. Meiji doori ga wakarimasu ka.

- Wakarimasu.

- Ja, Meiji doori made itte. Soko wo hidari ni magatte. Taishikan wa migi gawa ni arimasu.

- Wakarimashita. Arigatou gozaimashita.


- ''Hello?''
- ''Is it Mr Yamada (teacher Yamada)? It is Sebastian. There is something that I want to ask you. Is now ok?''
- ''It is ok! Now, I am at the school, but it is ok.''
- ''Now, I am looking for the French Embassy. You know the place, right?''
- ''Yes, I know! Now, where are you?''
- ''I am still in front of the Hiroo station.''
- ''From the station, it takes about 10 minutes. Do you know Meiji Street?''
- ''Yes, I know it.''
- ''Well then, go to Meiji Street. There, turn on your left. The embassy is on the right side.''
- ''I understood. Thank you very much.''


grammaire-japonais

から/まで (kara/made): from/to

• ''から'' indicates the starting time or place. We translate it into "from", "since" or "after".

• ''まで'' indicates the ending time or place. We translate it into " until" or "to".




- 八時半から十時まで勉強します。
- Hachi ji han kara juu ji made benkyou shimasu.
- I study from 8:30 until 10:00.

- 私の家から学校まで30分かかります。
- Watashi no ie kara gakkou made 30 (san juu) pun kakarimasu.
- It takes 30 minutes to go from my house to the school.


''ぐらい'' (gurai): about(approximately)



- 私の家から学校まで30分ぐらいかかります。
- Watashi no ie kara gakkou made 30 (san juu) pun gurai kakarimasu.
- It takes about 30 minutes to go from my house to the school.

- いくらぐらいかかりますか。
- Ikura gurai kakarimasu ka.
- It takes about how much money?


To say ''thanks''

There are different ways to say ''thanks''. We often use "ありがとう" alone or with a politeness prefix or suffix.




• ありがとう (Arigatou)
=> Thanks.

This word is informal. We use it among friends. Used in a formal context, it can be considered rude.

• ありがとうございます (Arigatou gozaimasu)
=> Thank you very much.

This form is polite and we can use it in any context.

• ありがとうございました (Arigatou gozaimashita)
=> Thank you very much.

This is the polite past form. We use it at the end of a conversation, before to go away.

• どうもありがとう (doumo arigatou)
=> Thank you very much.

This is another polite form, but being slightly less used.

• どうもありがとうございます (doumo arigatou gozaimasu)
=> Thank you very much.

This is a very polite form, which is often too polite in many situations.

• どうもありがとうございました (doumo arigatou gozaimashita)
=> Thank you very much.

This is the very polite past form. It is used before to go away.

• どうも (doumo)
=> Thank you.

This is the short form of the three forms above.


The ''-te'' form of the verb

The ''-te'' form of the verb is exactly like the ''-ta'' form (see course No.18). Only the final "a" becomes an "e".


The verbs of the 3rd group

- する (suru) => し (shite)

- 来る (kuru) => 来 (kite)


The verbs of the 2nd group

It's very simple: We simply replace the "-ru" with "-te".

- 食べ (taberu) => 食べ (tabete)

- 慣れ (nareru) => 慣れ (narete)

- あげ (ageru) => あげ (agete)


The verbs of the 1st group

Each of the nine endings of the verbs in the 1st group is different.

- 買 (kau) => 買って (katte)

- 聞 (kiku) => 聞いて (kiite)

- 脱 (nugu) => 脱いで (nuide)

- 遊 (asobu) => 遊んで (asonde)

- 読 (yomu) => 読んで (yonde)

- 探(sagasu) => 探して (sagashite)

- 待 (matsu) => 待って (matte)

- 死 (shinu) => 死んで (shinde)

- 知 (shiru) => 知って (shitte)

We use the ''-te'' form to get the imperative (to give orders). Depending on the tone of voice being used and the context, the request could be rude. We will see in the next course how to make a polite request.




- そこを左に曲がって
- Soko wo hidari ni magatte.
- There, turn on your left.

- 全部食べ
- Zenbu tabete.
- Eat all.

- あそこに行って
- Asoko ni itte.
- Go over there.


The ''-te iru'' form of the verb

We use the ''-te + iru'' form (or ''imasu'' at the polite form) with the actions that we are doing right now or that will continue over a certain period of time.




- パンを食べます
- I eat bread.

- パンを食べています
- I eat bread. / I am eating bread.

- 女の人は友達を待っていました
- The woman was waiting for a friend.

- 知っている
- I know.

''To know'' always happens over a long period of time, so we use the ''-te iru'' form.

lecture-japonais

HiraganaKatakana











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