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Lesson of Japanese No.27


vocabulaire-japonais



診察
終る
インフルエンザ
普通
風邪
違います
しばらく
移す

お風呂
入る
だめ
良い
寝る
おだいじに
お酒
しんさつ
おわる
インフルエンザ
ふつう
かぜ
ちがいます
しばらく
うつす
あと
おふろ
はいる
だめ
よい
ねる
おだいじに
おさけ
Shinsatsu
Owaru
Infuruenza
Futsuu
Kaze
Chigaimasu
Shibaraku
Utsusu
Ato
Ofuro
Hairu
Dame
Yoi
Neru
Odaijini
Osake
Medical examination
To finish/to close
Influenza (flu)
Ordinary
Cold (illness)
Different
Moment/little while
To infect
After
Bath
To enter
Not allowed/impossible/must not
Good/fine
To sleep
Get well soon./Take care of yourself.
Alcohol/sake



ecriture-japonais



texte-japonais



(診察が終る)

- 先生、どうですか。

- インフルエンザですね。

- そうですか。

- インフルエンザというのは普通の風邪と違います。しばらく学校に行ってはいけませんよ。人に移したら大変だから。

- いつから行ってもいいですか。

- 後1週間ぐらいしたら行ってもいいですよ。

- 今日お風呂に入ってもいいですか。

- だめです。2、3日はお風呂に入ってはいけません。

- そうですか。どうしたら早く良くなりますか。

- たくさん食べて、たくさん寝たらよくなりますよ。

- わかりました。ありがとうございました。

- はい、おだいじに。
(しんさつがおわる)

- せんせい、どうですか。

- インフルエンザですね。

- そうですか。

- インフルエンザというのはふつうのかぜとちがいます。しばらくがっこうにいってはいけませんよ。ひとにうつしたらたいへんだから。

- いつからいってもいいですか。

- あといっしゅうかんぐらいしたらいってもいいですよ。

- きょうおふろにはいってもいいですか。

- だめです。2、3にちはおふろにはいってはいけません。

- そうですか。どうしたらはやくよくなりますか。

- たくさんたべて、たくさんねたらよくなりますよ。

- わかりました。ありがとうございました。

- はい、おだいじに。



(The examination is over)

- ''Doctor, how am I doing?''
- ''You have influenza.'' (Literally: It is influenza.)
- ''Oh yes?''
- ''Influenza is different from an ordinary cold. You must not go to school for a little while because you will infect other people.'' (Literally:...because if you infect people, it will be grave.)
- ''How soon can I go?''
- ''After about one week, you can go.''
- ''Today, can I take a bath?''
- ''You must not. You cannot take a bath for two or three days.''
- ''So, what can I do to feel better soon?'' (Literally: So, how can I become fine soon?)
- ''If you eat a lot and drink a lot, you will feel better.'' (Literally: ...you will become fine.)
- ''I understood. Thank you very much.''
- ''Yes. Take care of yourself.''




• Be careful not to confuse ''良く'' (good, nice) with ''よく'' (often).

• We use ''先生'' when talking to a doctor as well as to a teacher.



grammaire-japonais

''というのは'' (-to iu no wa): the explanation

We use "-to iu no wa" to indicate where is the theme that will be explained, commented or given more details about.




- インフルエンザというのは何ですか。
- What is influenza?

- ATMというのは知らない人はいないと思う。
- I think that everybody knows what an ATM is.(Literally: An ATM, there isn't a person who doesnt't know what it is, I think.)


In an informal context, we can replace "-to iu no wa" with "-tte".




- インフルエンザって何?
- What's the flu?


''てもいいです'' (-te mo ii desu): the permission

We use the ''-te mo ii desu'' form to give the permission to do something or to ask for it. We get that type of sentence by using the ''-te'' form of the verb (see course No.20) + ''mo ii desu''.

Taberu => Tabete => Tabete mo ii desu.




- 全部食べてもいいですよ。
- You are allowed to eat all!

- もう帰ってもいいですか。
- I am already allowed to go back?

To give or to ask the permission not to do something, we use the ''-nakute mo ii desu'' form. We get that type of sentence by using the ''-nai'' form of the verb (see course No.16). We omit the final ''i'' that we replace with ''-kute mo ii desu''.

Taberu => Tabenai => Tabenakute mo ii desu.




- 全部食べなくてもいいですよ。
- Don't make an effort to eat all. (Literally: You are allowed not to eat all.)

- 帰らなくてもいいです
- You don't have to go back home. (Literally: You are allowed not to go back.)


''てはいけません'' (-te wa ikemasen): forbidden or impossible

We also get that form by using the ''-te'' form of the verb with, this time, ''-wa ikemasen''. This ban is quite strict and the ''-te wa ikemasen'' form is only being used when there clearly is a relation of authority between the people interacting. For instance, it is the case when a parent talks to his child or a policeman talks to somebody. In the other contexts, we will rather use ''Dame desu.''




- 学校でお酒を飲んではいけません
- It is forbidden to drink alcohol at the school.

Note that "-wa ikemasen" can be used after something else than a verb.

- 無理はいけません
- Nothing is impossible. (Literally: The impossible is impossible.)

The ''-te wa ikemasen'' form can be translated into a ban such as ''we must not do''. To get the meaning ''we must do'', it is necessary to use a double negation. Then, we will use the ''-nakute wa ikemasen'' form. To have that type of sentence, we must, once again, use the ''-nai'' form of the verb. We omit the final ''i'' and we replace it with ''-kute wa ikemasen''.




- 肉は食べなくてはいけません
- You must eat meat. (Literally: You mustn't not eat meat.)


We will see later that there are other forms being more often used to express an obligation (have to do).


''間'' (-kan): the length

We use ''間'' with a length of time (a period). ''間'' is always being used to express a length of time with hour(s), week(s) or year(s). With other time units (minute(s), day(s), month(s), etc.), ''間'' is only being used if we want to give a lot of importance to the length.

- 一時 「いちじに」
- At 1 o'clock

- 一時間 「いちじかん」
- One hour (a length of one hour)

- 一時半 「いちじかんはん」
- One hour and a half (a length of...)

- 二週 「にしゅうかん」
- Two weeks (a length of...)

- 三年 「さんねんかん」
- Three years (a length of...)

but

- 一ヶ月 「ぃっかげつ」
- One month

- 一ヶ月 「ぃっかげつかん」
- During one month

Concerning the second case, "一か月間" is being used a lot less than "一か月" and shows that we are giving a lot of importance to the length.


The ''-tara'' form of the verb: the conditional

Using the ''-tara'' form is one of the ways to get a conditional sentence. ''If I do this, the consequence will be...'' or ''When I do this, the consequence is...''

The ''-tara'' form is simple to get. You use the ''-ta'' form of the verb (see course No.18) + ''ra''.




- 薬を飲んだらお酒を飲んではいけません
- When we take medication, we must not drink alcohol.

- 良く見たらわかるよ。
- If you look well, you will understand.


The negative form is ''nakattara''. To get it, we use the negative past informal form ''nakatta'' (see course No.16) + ''ra''.




- お茶がなかったら死ぬと思います。
- If there was no tea, I think that I would die.

- 友達ができなかったらかわいそう。
- It would be pitiful if we couldn't make friends.