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Lesson of Japanese No.28


vocabulaire-japonais






お腹
痛い


送別会
だいたい
今月
来月

寂しい

効く
変わる
いろ

あたま
おなか
いたい
まい
ばん
そうべつかい
だいたい
こんげつ
らいげつ
ちゅう
さびしい
くすり
きく
かわる
Iro
I
Atama
Onaka
Itai
Mai
Ban
Soubetsukai
Daitai
Kongetsu
Raigetsu
-chuu
Sabishii
Kusuri
Kiku
Kawaru
Color
Stomach
Head
Stomach (belly)
Painful
Every/each
Evening
Farewell party
About
This month
Next month
Middle/during
To feel lonely
Medicine
To be effective/to show effect
To change/to be transformed


ecriture-japonais



texte-japonais



- 顔色が悪いですよ。大丈夫ですか。

- ええ、この一週間、食べ過ぎ飲み過ぎで胃が痛いんです。

- どうしてですか。

- 友達がみんな国へ帰るんです。そのために毎晩送別会なんです。

- そうですか。みんないつ帰るんですか。

- 人によって違いますが、だいたい今月、来月中には帰りますよ。

- そうですか、寂しくなりますね。

- そうですね。

- もし良かったら、この薬飲んでください。良く効きますよ。

- ありがとうございます。
- かおいろがわるいですよ。だいじょうぶですか。

- ええ、このいっしゅうかん、たべすぎのみすぎでいがいたいん
です。

- どうしてですか。

- ともだちがみんなくにへかえるんです。そのためにまいばんそうべつかいなんです。

- そうですか。みんないつかえるんですか。

- ひとによってちがいますが、だいたいこんげつ、らいげつちゅうにはかえりますよ。

- そうですか、さびしくなりますね。

- そうですね。

- もしよかったら、このくすりのんでください。よくききます
よ。

- ありがとうございます。


-'' You don't look good. (Literally: The color of your face is bad!) Are you fine?''
- ''This week, I ate and drank too much. My stomach is painful.''
- ''How come?''
- ''All my friends will go back to their country. Every evening, we did a farewell party.'' (Literally: Because of this, every evening was a farewell party.)
- ''Oh yes? When will they all go back?''
- ''Depending on the people, it is different, but generally, they will go back this month or during the next month.''
- ''So, you will become lonely, won't you?''
- ''That is right.''
- ''If you would like to, please take this medicine. It will show effect quickly.''
- ''Thank you very much!''


grammaire-japonais

''過ぎる/すぎる'' (-sugiru): the excess (too much or too many)

• With an "i" adjective

The final "i" of the adjective becomes "-sugiru".

Ookii (big) => Ookisugiru (too big)




- 高すぎる
- It's too expensive.


Transformed this way, the adjective is like a verb, so we get:




- 高すぎます
- It is too expensive (polite form).

- 高すぎました
- It was too expensive (polite form).

- 高すぎた
- It was too expensive (informal form).


• With a "na" adjective

We use "-sugiru" right after the adjective, without using "na".




- 父は元気過ぎる
- My father has too much energy.


• With a verb

We use the ''-masu'' form of the verb and we replace ''-masu'' with ''-sugiru''.

Nomimasu (to drink) => Nomisugiru (to drink too much)




- テレビを見すぎる
- To watch television too much

- 言いすぎました
- I said too much.


Sugi

If, instead of "-sugiru", we use "-sugi", we turn the verb or the adjective into a noun.

食べ過ぎる => to eat too much, as in "He eats too much."

食べ過ぎ => the action or the fact of eating too much, as in "It's dangerous to eat too much." (The action of eating too much is dangerous.)




- 遊びすぎはだめです。 「あそびすぎはだめです。」
- We must not have too much fun. (Literally: The fact of having too much fun is forbidden.)


''ために'' (-tameni): the purpose of an action (in order to, for)

• With a verb

We use the informal form of the verb + tame ni.

Iku (to go) => Iku tame ni (in order to go)




- 日本語を勉強するために日本へ来ました。
- I came to Japan in order to study Japanese.

To get the negative form (in order not to), we use the negative informal form of the verb (the ''-nai'' form) + tame ni.




- 山で死なないために 「やまでしななために」
- In order not to die in a mountain (book title).


• With a noun, a pronoun or a word used to ask questions (Who?, When?, etc.)

We use the noun, the pronoun or the word used to ask a question + no + tame ni.




- 旅行のために英語を勉強したい。 「りょこうのためにえいごをべんきょうしたい。」
- I want to study English in order to travel.

- 何のためにその本を読むのか。 「なんのためにそのはおんをよむのか。」
- What is the purpose of reading that book?

- 私のためにここに来た。
- He came here for me.


• With ''sono'' or ''kono''

We use ''sono + tame ni'' or ''kono + tame ni'' to say ''in order to'' or ''that is why''.




- そのために勉強します。
- That is why I study.


''によって'' (ni yotte): it depends on




- 国によって違います。
- It depends on the countries. (Literally: It is different according to the countries.)

- 気温は日によって5~6度変わります。 「きおんはひによって5~6どかわります。」
- Depending on the days, the temperature varies from 5 to 6 degrees.


''毎'' (mai-): each/every

毎 (mai - every) + 晩 (ban - evening) = 毎晩 (maiban - every evening)

毎日まいにちEvery day
毎朝まいあさEvery morning
毎晩まいばんEvery evening
毎週まいしゅうEvery week
毎月まいつき/まいげつEvery month
毎年まいとしEvery year
毎回まいかいEvery time



''んです'' (-n desu): the confirmation or the explanation

The "-n desu" form is very frequently used when speaking. We use it to give an explanation, ask for an explanation or ask to have something confirmed (something that seems obvious according to the context). We use "-n desu" after the informal form of a verb or of an adjective.




- 毎日何を食べますか。
- What do you eat every day?

- 何を食べていますか。
- What are you eating?

- 肉を食べるんですか。
- So, you eat meat?

- 本当に痛いんですか。
- Is it really painful?

- 日本に帰るんです
- I will go back to Japan.

Later on, we will see that the "-n desu" form is being used as well in other contexts.

The "-n desu" form is the polite form, just like every time we use the particle "desu". The informal form is "-n da".




- 日本に帰るんだ
- I'll go back to Japan.


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Comprehension exercise

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5 additional exercises

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Author: Tev

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Translator: Jass