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The particle "de" : で

This particle is used to introduce some circumstantial complements.The most important for beginners are:

a. The place

"De" indicates where an action takes place, except for the static verbs, which prefer the particle "ni".

Example of static verbs:
"aru" ("to do" for an inanimated object);
"iru" ("to do" for an animated object);
"sunde imasu" (''to live'')

So, we'll say:

Hachikô no dôzô no mae de machimashita = I waited in front of the statue of Hachikô.


Tôkyô ni sunde imasu = ''I live in Tokyo.'' because "sunde imasu" is a static verb.

* Reminder:

Is called an action verb a verb that expresses an action; that action is made or incurred.

Is called static verb a verb that is used to express a way of being.

b. The way

The medium with which the action takes place.


Basu de ikimasu = I go by bus.
Genkin de harau = I pay cash.
Watashi wa kuruma de depâto e ikimasu = I go to the supermarket by car.

c. The cause

"De" indicates what is the cause of something.


Kaze de atama ga itai = I have a headache due to a cold.
Jûtai de totemo jikan ga kakarismasu = It takes me a lof of time because of the traffic jams.

Author: Duncan

Translator: Othman