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The particle "to" : と

Four essential functions:

a. The coordination

Translated into "and" in English in the case of a closed list.

Inu to neko = (Only) Dogs and cats.
Umi to yama = (Only) The sea and the mountain.

b. To make a quote

Whether in a direct or indirect speech, "to" is used to link these two levels of speech.


Duncan to môshimasu = I'm Duncan.
Raigestu kekkon suru to omoimasu = I think that they are getting married next month.

c. The partner

Translated into "with" in English.


Tev-san wa Wakatsuki Chinatsu to kekkon shimasu = Tev is going to get married to Wakatsuki Chinatsu.
Watashi wa tomodachi to ryôko shimasu = I travel with friends.

d. The condition

Translated into "if" or "when" in French, ''to'' is used to introduce a condition.


Koko wa osu to, itai desu ka = If I press here, does it hurt?
Takai da to kaimasen = If it's expensive, I don't buy it.
Author: Duncan

Translator: Othman